Quality and Sustainability of Toilets 2017
A rapid assessment of toilet technologies under the Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin. The survey was covered over a thousand households across eight states; with 766 fully constructed functional toilets and 258 where toilets were under construction. Findings show twin-leach pits (57%) is the predominant substructure technology, followed by single-leach pits (22%) and septic tanks (21%). However, technology choice and construction were many times suboptimal, unsuited to the local geography and not adhering to design parameters.